Scientific Papers


Listed by subject area, number of STRs (minimum 17), samples (minimum 20 J2 or high-coverage data), SNPs, short author/year citation (linked) and short citation of important findings. Exceptions for minimums are made for the Middle East or other interesting areas. Ancient J2 see at the bottom.

More then one region/continent

  • Europe & South Asia, low-coverage Y-sequences from 1000 Genomes, 63 samples (42 J2a, 21 J2b), thousends of SNPs: Magoon et al. (preprint 2013)SNP markers with names in the range Z6046 through Z8120 were identified and provisionally placed [in J2a …] ancient lineage is expected to be defined by Z6046 […] J2a-Z6055 could be interesting in future studies of the remaining J2a-L26* haplotype clusters […] proposed  sub-haplogroups defined  by  Z6082  and  Z7366. […] downstream is Z6065 etc. uniting one M47 sample […] J2b-M12 now sub-divides into three branches defined by M205, M241, and Z2453. […] J2b2b-Z2432 is a significant new clade […]“. See J2a tree.
  • 51 populations, 0.5 MB of Y-sequences, (33 J2), hundreds of SNPs: Lippold et al 2014 (Stoneking SK SNPs) – A datafile with the alleles at each of the NRY SNPs in each sample has been provided to the CEPH-HGDP and additionally is available from the authors. The NRY raw sequencing data are in the European Nucleotide Archive with the study accession number PRJEB4417 (sample accession numbers ERS333252-ERS333873).

Fertile Crescent, Levant, Middle East, Caucasus, Arabia, North Africa

  • Anatolia Central, 17 STRs, : Alakoc et al 2010 (paywall), “considerable diversity within these settlements
  • Anatolian Greek & Provence/Corsica, 37 STRs, min. 23 samples: King et al 2011, “J2a is also common, attaining a frequency of 9.7% in Phokaia and 15.5% in Smyrna.
  • Armenia, 17 STRs, 99 J2a, 6 J2b samples: Herrera et al 2011 (paywall), “striking prominence of haplogroups previously implicated with the Agricultural Revolution in the Near East, including the J2a-M410-, R1b1b1*-L23-, G2a-P15- and J1-M267-derived lineages.
  • Lebanon & Iran, 19 STRs, ?/647? samplesHaber et al 2010, “Genetic organization was identified by geography and religion across Lebanon in the context of surrounding populations important in the expansions of the major sects of Lebanon, including Italy, Turkey, the Balkans, Syria, and Iran
  • Levant, 19 STRs, ?/885? samples: El-Sibai et al 2009, “Haplogroup J2, in contrast, was present at its highest frequency in the Lebanese population (29.4%) and was significantly more frequent there, than in the remaining Levantine regions (p < 0.05) (Table  1). As previously reported (Zalloua et  al., 2008a), it decreases towards the west in North African countries and towards the east in the Arabian Peninsula (29.4% in Lebanon compared to 7.6% in Egypt and 8.3% in Kuwait; Fig.  2G and Table  1).
  • Iran, ? STRs, ?/140 samples: Lashgary et al 2011 (paywall), “diversity among the Iranian religious groups […] Assyrians had elevated frequency (40%) of R*(xR1a) and low frequency (11%) of J.
  • Iran/Azerbaijan, 17 STRs, ?/259 samplesRoewer et al 2009 (paywall), “5 Iranian and 1 Azerbaijani group
  • Middle East and Europe, 10 STRs, 799 samples: Badro et al 2013, “While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data.

Mediterranean Europe, Balkans, Danube/Rhine, Iberia

  • Bulgaria, 17 STRs, 85 samples (54 J2a, 31 J2b), 8 SNPs: Karachanak et al. 2013, “two J-M172 sub-branches, namely J-M241 and J-M530, observed at a frequency of 3.8% and 2.4%, respectively“.
  • European Roma, 19 STRs (41 M67, 82 M92): Martínez-Cruz et al 2015,
  • Iberia, 19 STR, 88+10+43 samples, 1 SNP: Adams et al 2008 “… Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula
  • Iberia Andalusia, 16+2 STRs, ?/417: Ambrosio et al 2010, “Haplogroup J occurs at 9.20% in Granada and 7.20% in Huelva. […] J2-M172[…] In our Andalusian samples, this lineage occurs at frequencies of 5–6%, whereas in other Iberian populations, J2 varies from 3% (in the Basque area) to 15% (in southern Portugal).
  • Iberia Catalania, 17 STR, 68 Y-SNP, ~2500 samples, 50 Catalan surnames: Solé-Morata et al 2015
  • Iberia South, 17 STR, ? SNPs, 416 samples, surname clusters: Calderón et al 2015, “three surname cases with 3 occurrences each carrying haplogroups E-M81, I1-M253, and J2-M172 respectively. […] the J2-M172 seems to be related to Greek and Phoenicians colonies that were well established at least from the first millennium BC in the Peninsula, particularly in littoral Andalusia […] toponymic surname “vc” refers to a northern Andalusian town with a castle […] defended by Muslim garrisons in the 12th century. In this survey we have found three carriers of this surname with family origins in Granada territory (300 km far away from that town). The three Y-C harbored the J2a1 haplogroup with two of them sharing indeed 17 loci Y-STRs haplotype. These results suggest that the sampled “vc” males would be descendants of a member of that Muslim garrison, revealing then a clarifying case of Arab ancestry.
  • Italy, 19 STRs, 120 samples, 5 SNPs: Boattini et al 2013two independent and parallel processes of Neolithisation … most of the Y-chromosomal diversity present in modern day Italians was originated from few common ancestors living during late Neolithic times and the Early Metal Ages.
  • Italy, 17 STRs, 63 samples: Brisighelli et al. 2012, “Haplogroup J2 also revealed important regional differences; it added to 9% in the North, 37% in the Center, and 22% in the South, with statistically significant differences between …”
  • Italy Central, 17 STRs, 39 samples (24 J2a, 15 J2b), ? SNPs: Messina et al. 2015, “there was an evident genetic similarity between the Central Italian samples and Near Eastern populations mainly in the male genetic pool.”
  • Italy Sardinia, high-coverage Y-sequences, almost all 2013 samples, thousends of SNPs: Francalacci et al. 2015
    low-coverage Y-sequences, 97 samples (74 J2a, 23 J2b), thousends of SNPs
    : Francalacci et al. 2013 (paywall, Dienekes). See J2 tree.
  • Italy South & Sicily, 17 STRs, 19 J2a, 3 J2b, 4 SNPs: Sarno et al. 2014, “presence of 4 PCS+ (“Phoenician Colonization Signal”) haplotypes [51][…] However, sub-lineages of haplogroup J2 have been also associated with the Neolithic colonization of mainland Greece, Crete and Southern Italy [52], and our TMRCA estimates for J2-subhaplogroups […] cannot exclude an earlier arrival of at least some of the J2 chromosomes in Sicily and Southern-Italy during Neolithic times.
  • Italy South & Sicily, 17 STRs, 19 J2a, 46 J2b, 6 SNPs: Sarno et al. 2015,
  • Italy Northeast, 17 STRs, 73 samples (50 J2a, 23 J2b), 7 SNPs: Coia et al. 2013, “we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques.

Asia Central, South and East

  • Afghan Hindu Kush, 39 STRs, 279 samples (262 J2a, 17 J2b), 10 SNPs: Di Cristofaro et al. 2013, “87 Pashtun, 142 Tajik, 77 Hazara, 74 Turkmen and 127 Uzbek obtained successful Y-chromosome analysis.”
  • India, 17 STRs, 158 samples, 11 SNPs: Singh et al 2016, 355 of 3023 males belonged to J2, no J*-M304 and J2*-M172, no J2a-M67 and J2a-M47, a lot of J2a-Z2396 (eq. PF5197) and also J2a-M68, a lot of J2b-M241 and some J2b-M205; J2a-M410 mainly NW border (Gujarat, Rajasthan, etc.; 17–50% in Toda, Chenchu, Banjara, Kamboj, Lohana, Kashmiri Muslims etc); J2b2-M241 concentrated in Eastern India (15–35% in Asur, Narikuravar, Pichakuntla, Shikari and Mondi, etc.).
  • Nepal/India, 12 STRs, ca. 40 samples: Fornarino et al 2009, “haplogroup J (Tharus 14.0%, Indians 5.8%), present only as J2, namely J2-M410* and J2-M241*. Whereas the latter haplogroup is shared by all Indian and Tharu samples, the J2-M410* was found in all Tharus but in only one Hindu of New Delhi, where one sample of its derivative J2-M68 was also present. If one considers the total frequency of this component in each sub-group, among Indians the highest value is observed in the Hindus of New Delhi (10%), and, among Tharus, in the group of Eastern Terai (30%)

Europe North, East & Atlantic

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Rest of the World

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Ancient J/J2 DNA

See Ancient chrY J2-M172 Haplogroup data and Ancient J2 Map (Ancient J2 Samples) by Ilhan Cengiz

  • 9119-8637 BC Mesolithic North Iran (Hotu Cave, southern shore Caspian Sea, sample I1293/HotuIIIb) in Lazaridis et al. 2016
    J2a-CTS1085(xCTS11251,PF5073) likely J2a2(xJ2a2a);
  • 8205–7756 BC Early Neolithic West Iran (Abdul Hosein in Central West Zagros, sample AH2) in Broushaki et al. 2016
    J2b-M12(xCTS560,Z620); analysis
  • 7940-7574 BC Mesolithic Caucasus (Kotias Klde cave, Western Georgia, sample KK1) in Jones et al 2015 (OG>Sheet) is
    J2a1b-Z6049>SK1321(xSK1314);
  • 6500-6200 BC Neolithic Anatolia (Barcın, Northwestern Turkey, sample I0708/BAR6/L11-439) in Mathieson et al 2015 is
    J2a1b-Z6049>Z6048(xS20392,Z6050);
  • 5030-4840 BC Neolithic Sopot Culture in Hungary (sample ALE14) in Szecsenyi-Nagy 2015 is
    J2-M172;
  • 5000-4300 BC? Neolithic Lengyel Culture in Hungary (sample FEB3) in Szecsenyi-Nagy 2015 is
    J2-M172;
  • 4800-4500 BC Neolithic Lengyel Culture in Hungary (sample I1902/FEB3a) in Lipson et al 2017 is
    J2a-L152;
  • 4680-3662 BC Copper Age West Iran (Seh Gabi in High Zagros region of Kermanshah, sample I1662/SG7) in Lazaridis et al. 2016
    J2a2-PF5008,Z38487,PF5044(xL581,PF5058,PH2868,PF5030,PH1932);
  • 2489-2299 BC Early Bronze Age North-Western Jordan (‘Ain Ghazal, sample I1730/AG_84_3083_116) in Lazaridis et al. 2016
    J2b1-PF7331(xPF7312);
  • 1270-1110 BC late Bronze Age Kyjatice Culture boy in Hungary (sample BR2) in Gamba et al. 2014 (OG>AM) is
    J2a1a1a1b1-M67>Z7671>CTS900>Y11202>Z30695>Z30685;
    in the study autosomally he clusters with modern Western Europeans (mainly French) so his near ancestry should be not from Caucasus or Anatolia (West Asia).
  • 1209-1009 BC late Bronze Age Norabak Culture in Armenia (sample RISE408) in Allentoft et al. 2015 is
    J2b2a-M241>L283>Z600(xZ627)
  • ~50 AD (900 BC to 1000 AD) Iron age Sary-Bel Kurgan Altai (sample RISE602) looks like complexes (II c. BC – I century AD) Bulan-Koba culture, which has been following the Scythian-Saka epoch in the Russian Altai (near border to Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia) in Allentoft et al. 2015.
    J2a2-PF5050>PF5058>PF7384>PF5056>PH3085,SK1403
  • 100-300 AD exogenous Roman era York (sample 3DRIF-26, likely Middle Eastern origin) in Martiniano et al 2016 is
    J2b1-M205
  • 400-600 AD Merovingian buriel site Roman-Frankish transitional period in Lauwerier, De Kort 2014:
    2 J2a1a1a1b1-M67? and one J2b?
  • ~ 805 AD late Iron age Kytmanovo Altai (sample RISE504) in Allentoft et al. 2015.
    J2a2-PF5050>PF5058>PF7384>PF5056>PH3085,SK1403
  • 8-9th centuries AD Saltovo-Mayaki culture (Khazars period, sample A80411) in Afanas’ev et al 2015 (updates expected).
    J2a