J2a2-PH3085,SK1403: Ancient Altai, modern Uygur and Turkish

J2a2-PH3085,SK1403 Map 2015-06-15The huge Allentoft et al. 2015 research with low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia included two males from Altai Iron Age (900 BC to 1000 AD) in the same J2a2 haplogroup (see Altai archaeology). Even more intriguing is that the ancient genomes share unique Y-SNPs with two modern samples: one Uygur and one Turkish, currently best named as J2a2-PH3085,SK1403. Unfortunately only three J2a2 Y-sequences with good coverage are known, two of them at processed at YFull: J2a2-PF5050(xPF5058) HG01589 Punjabi and J2a2-M340 YF01485 Armenian. The third is likely a J2a2-Z35890,P279(xM340,Z28408) from Kuwait. So currently only the diversification of J2a2-PF5050 has a good estimate: 16200 ybp. As long as we have no good age estimates of J2a2-PF5056,PF4993 there will remain much speculation about the age, origin and migration of J2a2-PH3085,SK1403. Could be of classic J2a Fertile Crescent area origin including a migration to Altai/Uygur region with “back-migration” to modern Turkey or the opposite: an origin in Central Asia. Without better data I would however tend to assume the origin of J2a2-PH3085,SK1403 in the South or Eastern Caspian area with migrations to the East and the West.

Phylogeny Analysis (SNPs, Haplogroups)

Sary-Bel Kurgan burial sample (RISE602, SAMEA3325434, ERX925332). From archaeological descriptions it looks like complexes (II c. BC – I century AD) Bulan-Koba culture, which has been following the Scythian-Saka epoch in the Russian Altai (near border to Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia).
RISE602 is positive for (Aburto BAM Analysis Kit file): M410+ CTS7683- PF5058+ PF5073+ PF5000+ PF5032+ PF5037+ PF5017+ PF5027+ PF5052+ PF5060+ PF7380+ PF5027+ P279- M340- PF5048- PF5061-

Kytmanovo 721-889 AD (RISE504, SAMEA3325397, ERX925295) also from the Russian Altai (more northern then RISE602 / south of Novosibirsk).
RISE504 is positive for the following J2a2 and below SNPs (more comprehensive BAM analysis): PF5022+ PF5050+ Z35775+ PF5035+ PF5041+  PF5073+ L581+ PF5044+ PF5000+ PF5002+ PF5013+ PF5031+ PF5032+ PF5038+ PF7384+ PF5015+ PF5017+ PF5027+ PF5036+ PF5043+ PF5056+ PF5064+ PF5003+ PF5027+ PF5031+ Z35889+ Z28380+ Z28381+ Z28386+ Z28401+ Z28402+ Z28403+ Z28420- Z28424- P279.1- YFS082471- Z35890- YFS082495+ YFS082526- YFS082653+ YFS083128- YFS083130+ M340- PF5061- PF5067- PF5070- PF5071- PF5082- L383.1-

J2a2 Tree 2015-06-15Since PF5056 is equivalent to PF5060 and PF5048 is equivalent to PF5082 they are in the same paragroup.
Analysis of “singleton” SNPs was done only by comparison with two other PF5056(xP279,PF5048) samples because of the low coverage of the ancient samples (risk of false detection). The samples have different coverage:

  • RISE602 Sary-Bel, BAM,
    PH1105+ PH1678+ PH1984+ PH2125+ PH3085+ PH3766+ PH3934+ PH5426+ SK1403+
  • RISE504 Kytmanov, BAM,
    PH358+ PH562+ PH638+ PH1984+ PH2125+ PH3085+ PH4480+ SK1403+ Z19832+
  • Uyg1304 Uygur, SK-SNPs/Stoneking BAM, 0.5 Mb, Lippold et al 2014, HGDP01304
    PH2466+ SK1403+ SK1404+ SK1405+
  • Tur-13 Turkey, PH-SNPs list, 3.5 Mb, Hallast et al 2014, Y-STR23 available
    All PH-SNPs listed above positive and additionally SK1403+ SK1404+ SK1405+ Z19832+ Four additional  PH-SNPs are negative at least in one of the above samples and 10 additional PH-SNPs with no-reads in the other three samples

Shared Y-Haplogroup: J2a2-PF5050>PF5058>PF5000>PF5056>PH3085,SK1403 or shorter form J2a2-PH3085,SK1403

See http://tree.j2-m172.info/?Hg=J2a2

The “L24 group” did collect RISE602 info (Людмила Рябченко translation, Kemal AL Gazzah with Ted Kandell first BAM analysis, Al Aburto usage of BAM Analysis Kit on the BAM file (SNP extraction) and David Dugas the first prediction of the J2a2 position.

STR-Haplotype Analysis

Based on a comparative analysis using the Tur-13 Turkey haplotype the following J2@FTDNA group was created:
J2a PF5050>PF5058>PF7384>PF5056>PH3085,SK1403>PH-tur-13 & GD≤5/18
Genetic Distance Table of the haplotypes in this txt file (FTDNA format)

1modal (Diagonal line is the number of markers)492224245423569777
2tur-13 Turkish Hallast et al. 2014, this study J2a2-PH3085,SK1403223111222222234545
3TK9_69 Turkmen-Jawzjan Di Cristofaro et al. 2013 J2a-M410(xL26)213924265643653466
4TK9_7 Turkmen-Jawzjan Di Cristofaro et al. 2013 J2a-M410(xL26)212396445643434564
5TJ1_36 Tajik-Balkh Di Cristofaro et al. 2013 J2a-M410(xL26)414639387865663656
6UZ1_4 Uzbek-Balkh Di Cristofaro et al. 2013 J2a-M410(xL26)222433455142653545
7TJ5_13 Tajik-Badakhshan Di Cristofaro et al. 2013 J2a-M410(xL26)426485398746756754
8TJ5_6 Tajik-Badakhshan Di Cristofaro et al. 2013 J2a-M410(xL26)525575839873764746
9IR1_12 East Azeri Di Cristofaro et al. 2013 J2a-M410(xL26)426681784265977775
10MG3_55 Mongol-NorthWest Di Cristofaro et al. 2013 J2a-M410(xL26)224464476435766675
11MG3_54 Mongol-NorthWest Di Cristofaro et al. 2013 J2a-M410(xL26)323352635543565766
12U2 Uyghur Di Cristofaro et al. 2013 J2a-M410(xL26)526466779754367996
13321244 Khasauov, Balkaria (Malkar, Mukhol) Unknown Origin J2-M172635365567666371211118
14249616 nayman, koban-noghay, NGY Russian Federation J-M172943433647657123781111
15250596 Kazakhstan J-M172754565777679118371111
16N40835 Russian Federation J-M4107466545477691111116714
17119738 Mityahdin,b.c.18..,Tatarskiye Junki Russian Federation J-M410756465465566811111467

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About Chris Rоttensteiner

Chris Rоttensteiner. Population Genetics: Phylo-Genetics & Haplogroups, Population Admixture & History, Family and Genetic Genealogy, South Tyrol, Alps, Central Europe.